Personally, I use gitlab predominantly. Since I do, and self host, here is how. Main goal was to do everything rootless-as-non-root with podman. We also choose to use the omnibus install at this time instead of the cloud native chart. Consider that Gitlab has documentation on reference architecture, but for small user bases it will function well with limited resources pending you’re good to wait a while for the initialization/migration to complete.

Podman deployment of Gitlab Community Edition #

Prepare a user to run gitlab:


The following assumes that you’re ok with the default home directory of /home/gitlab being the storage location. If you desire something else you’re going to want to be sensitive to the selinux contexts prior to creating the user. For example, if we wanted to use /opt/services/gitlab we would do the following:

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /opt/services
[[email protected] ~]# semanage fcontext -a -e /home /opt/services
  • semanage fcontext: Manage file context mapping definitions
  • -a: add,
  • -e: equivalence
[[email protected] ~]# restorecon -vRF /opt/services
  • restorecon: restore file(s) default SELinux security contexts.
  • -v: show changes in file labels,
  • -R: recursive,
  • -F: force reset of context

By getting the context of /opt/services to be proper, if you specified the home directory with -d /opt/services/gitlab it would begin with the proper contexts. All of this will have significant impact later when trying to utilize podman as a non-root user.

[[email protected] ~]# groupadd -g 3000 gitlab
[[email protected] ~]# useradd -g 3000 -u 3000 -s /usr/sbin/nologin gitlab


Above user sub-UID and sub-GID are automatically created, if you want to modify this you’ll want to observe the assignments (e.g. cat /etc/subuid, cat /etc/subgid) and delete (e.g. usermod --del-subuid --del-subgid) then re-add the sub-UID and sub-GID range (e.g. usermod --add-subuid --add-subgid) that you desire.

Enable linger so this user starts when the system starts, which will enable the users units to start at system boot:

[[email protected] ~]# loginctl enable-linger gitlab

Become the user and get started:

[[email protected] ~]# runuser gitlab

Prepare the directories:

[[email protected] ~]$ mkdir config data logs
  • config: will store you configuration and certificates
  • data: will store all running context for your instance, including backups
  • logs: will store logging from all internal sub-systems

Configure your gitlab instance by creating a config/gitlab.rb

[[email protected] ~]$ vim config/gitlab.rb


There is a lot of configuration available but I’ve managed to survive with just a few that I find most valuable. I’ve left the strings mostly blank, consult the template and other documentation for full examples:

external_url ''

gitlab_rails['time_zone'] = ''

gitlab_rails['smtp_enable'] = true
gitlab_rails['smtp_address'] = ''
gitlab_rails['smtp_port'] = 465
gitlab_rails['smtp_user_name'] = ''
gitlab_rails['smtp_password'] = ''
gitlab_rails['smtp_domain'] = ''
gitlab_rails['smtp_authentication'] = ''
gitlab_rails['smtp_enable_starttls_auto'] = true
gitlab_rails['smtp_tls'] = true
gitlab_rails['smtp_openssl_verify_mode'] = 'peer'

gitlab_rails['gitlab_email_from'] = ''
gitlab_rails['gitlab_email_reply_to'] = ''

gitlab_rails['gitlab_default_can_create_group'] = false
gitlab_rails['gitlab_username_changing_enabled'] = false
gitlab_rails['gitlab_default_projects_features_container_registry'] = false
gitlab_rails['lfs_enabled'] = true

nginx['listen_port'] = 80
nginx['listen_https'] = false
letsencrypt['enable'] = false

gitlab_rails['backup_archive_permissions'] = 0644   # make this readable for all
gitlab_rails['backup_keep_time'] = 259200           # three days

This minset of configuration is a good starting point.


We are choosing put a proxy in front of gitlab, so we’re turning off it’s internal https. Setting up the proxy will not be covered in this writeup.

Now invoke gitlab into existence:

[[email protected] ~]$ podman run --detach --name=gitlab  --label "io.containers.autoupdate=image" --health-start-period=5m --shm-size=8g --publish --volume ~/config:/etc/gitlab:Z --volume ~/logs:/var/log/gitlab:Z --volume ~/data:/var/opt/gitlab:Z
  • --label "io.containers.autoupdate=image": so we can use podman auto-update later
  • --health-start-period=5m: to wait until migrations are completed to begin health checks
  • --shm-size=8g: default shm is very small, gitlab will struggle without a larger one
  • :Z: The Z option tells Podman to label the content with a private unshared label.
  • :latest: gitlab releases often and addresses security issues, internally it handles migrations well, so we’ll be auto-updating this instance with podman.

Once you’ve gotten in and verified things are functioning, lets daemonize this with systemd:

[[email protected] ~]$ mkdir -p ~/.config/systemd/user ; cd ~/.config/systemd/user
[[email protected] ~]$ podman generate systemd --files --name --new --no-header gitlab

Now enable the service, which will restart the container but now be invoked by systemd:

[[email protected] ~]$ systemctl --user enable --now container-gitlab.service

Now enable auto updates:

[[email protected] ~]$ systemctl --user enable --now podman-auto-update.timer

Now observe:

  • Gitlab is running under a rootless user, as non-root
  • starts when the system starts due to lingering the user
  • automatically updates daily

Podman-in-Podman deployment of Gitlab Runner #

It’s been a long journey for those waiting, but podman is now considered a drop in replacement for docker as a gitlab executor.

We will make a separate user for the runner. All of the notes above about home directories and selinux contexts still apply, consider examining context above as the deployment pattern is quite similar.

[[email protected] ~]# groupadd -g 3002 runner
[[email protected] ~]# useradd -g 3002 -u 3002 -s /usr/sbin/nologin runner
[[email protected] ~]# loginctl enable-linger runner

Become the user and get started:

[[email protected] ~]# runuser runner

Prepare the directories:

[[email protected] ~]$ mkdir config

Enable the podman socket:

[[email protected] ~]$ systemctl --user enable --now podman.socket

Now invoke the runner into existence:

[[email protected] ~]$ podman run --detach --privileged --name=runner --label "io.containers.autoupdate=image" --volume /var/run/user/3002/podman/podman.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:Z --volume ~/config:/etc/gitlab-runner:Z
  • --privileged: will be run privileged, remember rootless containers cannot have more privileges than the account that launched them.
  • --label "io.containers.autoupdate=image": so we can use podman auto-update later
  • --volume /var/run/user/3002/podman/podman.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:Z: “leaking” the socket into the container so it can instance other containers
  • --volume ~/config:/etc/gitlab-runner:Z: runner configuration

Enter running container to register runner:

[[email protected] ~]$ podman exec -it runner gitlab-runner register

Modify configuration, make sure to examine the upstream documentation:

[[email protected] ~]$ vim ~/config/config.toml
concurrent = 1
check_interval = 0

  session_timeout = 1800

  name = ""
  url = ""
  token = ""
  executor = "docker"
    tls_verify = false
    image = ""
    privileged = true
    security_opts = ['label=disable']
    volumes = ["/cache","/var/run/user/3002/podman/podman.sock:/var/run/docker.sock"]

Once you’ve gotten in and verified things are functioning, lets daemonize this with systemd:

[[email protected] ~]$ mkdir -p ~/.config/systemd/user ; cd ~/.config/systemd/user
[[email protected] ~]$ podman generate systemd --files --name --new --no-header runner

Now enable the service, which will restart the container but now be invoked by systemd:

[[email protected] ~]$ systemctl --user enable --now container-runner.service

Now enable auto updates:

[[email protected] ~]$ systemctl --user enable --now podman-auto-update.timer

Example initial CI (deploying this site) #

This hugo site is deployed via a runner, an example gitlab-ci.yml:

  - build
  - deploy


  stage: build
    - hugo
      - public
    - main

  stage: deploy
  image: alpine:latest
    - apk add --update --no-cache rsync openssh openssh-client-common
    - mkdir -p ~/.ssh && chmod 700 ~/.ssh
    - echo ${DEPLOY_PRIVKEY} | base64 -d > ~/.ssh/id_deploy
    - chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_deploy
    - ssh-keyscan -p ${DEPLOY_PORT} ${DEPLOY_HOST} >> ~/.ssh/known_hosts
    - rsync -avzP -e "ssh -p ${DEPLOY_PORT} -i ~/.ssh/id_deploy" --delete public/ ${DEPLOY_USER}@${DEPLOY_HOST}:${DEPLOY_PATH}
    - main